An initiative of Marine Conservation Institute

Global Marine Protection Agreements

History of International Agreements on Global Marine Protection

Many nations have agreed to establish marine protected areas as part of their larger commitment to protecting biological diversity.

In 2002: The participants of the Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainability Development (WSSD) agreed to establish representative networks of marine protected areas by 2012.

In 2004: The Convention on Biodiversity (CBD) set a global marine MPA target of 10% coverage by 2012. Following the IUCN World Parks Congress, several other important agreements, including the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Durban Accord have set gradual and tangible marine conservation goals for world economic leaders.

In 2010: The Convention on Biological Diversity's Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, called the Aichi Target 11, calls for 10% of coastal and marine areas to be conserved by 2020 through effectively managed, ecologically representative and well connected systems of protected areas, and integrated into the wider landscapes and seascapes (Convention on Biological Diversity, 2010).

In 2014: The World Parks Congress increased their recommendation for 30% of the oceans to be strongly protected by 2030. Additionally, many countries have established their own national targets for marine protected areas, ranging in coverage from 10% to 30% (Table).

 

International MPA Conventions

Agreement

Goal

CBD (2010)

Designate 10% of the world’s marine areas under MPA status by the year 2020

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

The support for creating marine protected areas can be inferred from a number of articles in the United Nations Law of the Sea Convention19. Article 192 of the LOSC provides that "States have the obligation to protect and preserve the marine Environment". Other articles of the LOSC lend support to the creation of marine protected areas beyond national jurisdiction for specific purposes such as conservation and management of living resources in Article 61

Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance

The Convention's mission is "the conservation and wise use of all wetlands through local and national actions and international cooperation, as a contribution towards achieving sustainable development through the world". Wetlands includes mangroves, coastal areas and coral reefs.

International Coral Reef Initiative

ICRI emerged out recognition that coral reefs and related ecosystems found in tropical and sub-tropical regions are facing serious degredation, primarly due to anthropogenic stresses. It's objectives is to encourage the adoption of best practice in sustainable management of coral reefs and associated ecosystems, build capacity and raise awareness at all levels on the plight of coral reefs around the world.

The World Heritage Convention

The convention sets out the duties of State Parties in identifying potential sites and their role in protecting and preserving them. The State Parties are encouraged to integrate the protection of the cultural and natural heritage into regional planning programs, set up staff and services at their sites, undertake scientific and technical conservation research.

 

Summary of Agreements between Countries with Marine Estate

 

International
Agreements

Regional Treaties
& Agreements

Among Partners, NGOs,
Public Bodies, Research Groups

Countries

Convention on Biological
Diversity (Aichi)

United Nations Convention
on the Law of the Sea

Ramsar Convention on
Wetlands of Int'l Importance

International Coral
Reef Initiative

The World Heritage
Convention

The Regional Seas
Convention

Barcelona
Convention

Natura
2000

Atlantic Arc Network
of MPAs - MAIA

Caribbean MPA
Network - CaMPAM

Mediterranean MPA
Network - MedPAN

North American MPA
Network - NAMPAN

West Africa MPA
Network - RAMPAO

OSPAR
Convention

Albania

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Algeria

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Angola

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Antigua and Barbuda

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Argentina

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

American Samoa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Australia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Azerbaijan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bahamas

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bahrain

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bangladesh

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Barbados

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Belgium

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Belize

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Benin

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bosnia and Herzegovina

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Brazil

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Brunei Darussalam

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bulgaria

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

British Virgin Islands

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cabo Verde

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cambodia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cameroon

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Canada

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chile

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

China

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Colombia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Comoros

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Congo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cook Islands

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Costa Rica

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Côte d'Ivoire 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Croatia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cuba

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cyprus

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Democratic People's Republic of Korea

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Democratic Republic of the Congo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Denmark

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Djibouti

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dominica

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dominican Republic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ecuador

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Egypt

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

El Salvador

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Equatorial Guinea

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Eritrea

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Estonia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

European Union

 

 

 

(✓)

 

 

 

 

 

Fiji

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Finland

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

France

 

 

Gabon

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gambia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Georgia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Germany

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ghana

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Greece

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Grenada

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Guatemala

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Guinea

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Guinea-Bissau

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Guam

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Guyana

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Haiti

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Honduras

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Iceland

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

India

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Indonesia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Iran (Islamic Republic of)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Iraq

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ireland

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Israel

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Italy

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jamaica

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Japan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jordan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kazakhstan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kenya

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kiribati

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kuwait

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lativa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lebanon

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Liberia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Libya

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lithuania

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Madagascar

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Malaysia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Maldives

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Malta

 

 

 

 

 

 

Marshall Islands

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mauritania

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mauritius

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mexico

 

 

 

 

 

 

Micronesia (Federal States of)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Monaco

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mongolia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Montenegro

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Morocco

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mozambique

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Myanmar

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Namibia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nauru

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Netherlands

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

New Zealand

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nicaragua

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nigeria

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Niue

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Norway

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Oman

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pakistan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Palau

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Panama

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Papua New Guinea

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Peru

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Philipines

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Poland

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Portugal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Qatar

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Republic of Korea

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Romania

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Russia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Saint Kitts and Nevis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Saint Lucia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Samoa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sao Tome and Principe

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Saudi Arabia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Senegal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Seychelles

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sierra Leone

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Singapore

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Slovenia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Solomon Islands

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Somalia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

South Africa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

South Korea

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Spain

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sri Lanka

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sudan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Suriname

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sweden

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Syrian Arab Republic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thailand

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Togo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tonga

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Trinidad and Tobago

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tunisia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Turkey

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Turkmenistan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tuvalu

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ukraine

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

United Arab Emirates

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

United Kingdom

 

 

 

 

United Republic of Tanzania

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Uruguay

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vanuatu

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Viet Nam

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yemen

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

United States