Marine Protected Areas in Chile The Republic of Chile borders the Pacific Ocean on the west coast of South America, and the Drake Passage to the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas and Easter Island. The Pacific coastline of Chile is 78,563.2 kilometers and its Exclusive Economic Zone is approximately 3,681,989 sq km. Marine protected areas in Chile include federally designated marine parks, marine reserves, and coastal marine protected areas among others. MPAs include areas managed by federal, regional, and local governments as well as non- governmental organizations. Chile currently has 25 sites with marine protected area designations. The effectiveness of marine management in the Chile is limited due to lack of funding and resources to develop and implement management plans. The Chilean government is currently working on a law that will put protected areas under one agency. This will facilitate a more streamlined approach to creating and managing protected areas- including marine and coastal zones.
From Gelcich et al. (2015):
In Chile, the main legal tools that exist for the implementation of MPAs take the form of Natural Sanctuaries, National Monuments, Marine Parks, Marine Reserves and Multiple use MPAs (Castilla; Fernández and Castilla ; Castilla ). The goal of establishing Natural Sanctuaries, Natural Monuments and Marine Parks is to preserve natural ecosystems, while also allowing for educational and research activities. Marine Parks are non-take areas in coastal or open ocean waters where marine resources are off limits to any extractive uses. In contrast, Marine Reserves allow for the rational and sustainable exploitation of resources (Fernández and Castilla, ). Multiple Use MPAs have been the latest addition to the marine conservation policy instruments in Chile. Multiple use MPAs were first implemented with funding by the Global Environmental Facility, and are meant to act as an “umbrella-like” tool which considers the management of multiple ecosystem services within MPA boundaries (Gelcich et al. ).
Despite the existence of a suite of conservation tools, biodiversity conservation in Chile is underfunded, including MPAs (Castilla ; Gelcich et al. ; Waldron et al. ). Chile is one of four countries that are in bottom quartile of relative biodiversity conservation funding and the top quartile of threatened biodiversity (Waldron et al. ). The inability to direct funds to regulate and enforce MPAs has been identified as one of the main causes that lead to their failure (Mora et al. ; Gravestock et al. ). For MPAs in Chile, revenues from tourism are not sufficient to finance running costs and enforcement. For example, Lafken Mapu Lahual, one of the largest multiple use MPAs in continental Chile, could only achieve around 10% of running costs, in the most favorable conditions, under current management scenarios (Gelcich et al. ).
Marine conservation in Chile is undergoing an important transformation. The newly elected government of Michelle Bachelet which took office in March 2014 has highlighted the need to establish a “National Service of Protected Areas and Biodiversity” which will gather and concentrate the diverse conservation instruments in both land and sea, under an integrated environmental governance scheme. This represents a key opportunity to highlight the role that ancillary conservation instruments such as TURFs and Municipal conservation areas could have in scaling up and managing marine biodiversity.
From A Coastal-Marine Assessment in Chile, Nov 2011:
The administration of biodiversity conservation in Chile is complex, with multiple state agencies having the power to establish, veto, and administer the governance and management of ocean and coastal resources.
The main state agencies connected with marine protection and management include
The Undersecretary for the Navy is the owner of the sea floor and water column. SUBPESCA manages marine resources. DIRECTEMAR enforces navigation regulations and pollution permits. The MMA determines water quality standards and is the lead agency for Chile’s commitments to the Convention on Biological Diversity. The Board of National Monuments is in charge of declaring national sanctuaries, which can be in coastal areas. All of these organizations make up the National Committee for the Use of Coastal Areas, which addresses matters relative to coastal management.
Archipiélago de Juan Fernández National Park (Parque Nacional)
Archipielago Juan Fernández UNESCO-MAB Biosphere Reserve (Reserva Biósfera)
Bahía Moreno - La Rinconada Marine Reserve (Reserva Marina)
Bosque de Calabacillo de Navidad Nature Sanctuary (Santuario de la Naturaleza)
Cabo de Hornos UNESCO-MAB Biosphere Reserve (Reserva Biósfera)
Cabo de Hornos National Park (Parque Nacional)
Chilean Fjords and Islands
Coral Nui Nui Marine and Coastal Protected Area (Area Marina Costera Protegida)
Easter Island Marine Park (Parque Marino)
Estero Quitralco Nature Sanctuary (Santuario de la Naturaleza)
Fiordo Comau- San Ignacio de Huinay Marine and Coastal Protected Area (Area Marina Costera Protegida)
Francisco Coloane Marine and Coastal Protected Area (Area Marina Costera Protegida)
Francisco Coloane- Isla Carlos III Marine Park (Parque Marino)
Hanga Oteo Marine and Coastal Protected Area (Area Marina Costera Protegida)
Humedal de la Desembocadura del Río Lluta Nature Sanctuary (Santuario de la Naturaleza)
Isla Cachagua Natural Monument (Monumento Natural)
Isla Chañaral Marine Reserve (Reserva Marina)
Isla de Cachagua Nature Sanctuary (Santuario de la Naturaleza)
Isla de Sala y Gómez e islotes adyacentes a la Isla de Pascua Nature Sanctuary (Santuario de la Naturaleza)
Isla Grande Atacama - Punta Morro - Desembocadura río Copiapó Marine and Coastal Protected Area (Area Marina Costera Protegida)
Islas Choros - Damas Marine Reserve (Reserva Marina)
Islote o Peñón de Peña Blanca y las formaciones rocosas de la Punta de Peña Blanca Nature Sanctuary (Santuario de la Naturaleza)
Islote Pájaros Niño Nature Sanctuary (Santuario de la Naturaleza)
Islotes de Punihuil Natural Monument (Monumento Natural)
Islotes Lobería y Lobería Iglesia de Piedra de Cobquecura Nature Sanctuary (Santuario de la Naturaleza)
Juan Fernandez Islands
Lafken Mapu Lahual Marine and Coastal Protected Area (Area Marina Costera Protegida)
Laguna San Rafael UNESCO-MAB Biosphere Reserve (Reserva Biósfera)
La Portada Natural Monument (Monumento Natural)
Las Cruces Marine and Coastal Protected Area (Area Marina Costera Protegida)
Motu Motiro Hiva Marine Park (Parque Marino)
Motu Tautara Marine and Coastal Protected Area (Area Marina Costera Protegida)
Nazca-Desventuradas Marine Park (Parque Marino)
Patagonia Promised Protection
Pitipalena-Añihue Marine and Coastal Protected Area (Area Marina Costera Protegida)
Pullinque Marine Reserve (Reserva Marina)
Punta de Choros
Putemún Marine Reserve (Reserva Marina)
Rapa Nui National Park (Parque Nacional)
Roca Oceánica Nature Sanctuary (Santuario de la Naturaleza)
Rocas de Constitución Nature Sanctuary (Santuario de la Naturaleza)
Tic-Toc Marine and Coastal Protected Area (Area Marina Costera Protegida)
4 Marine Managed Areas:
Bahía Lomas Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar)
Carlos Anwandter Sanctuary Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar)
Humedal el Yali Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar)
Santuario de la Naturaleza Laguna Conchalí Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar)
Marine Conservation Institute and the Waitt Foundation provide this interactive tool to help users visualize the locations and coverage of global marine protected areas (MPA). This atlas provides information on over 8000 MPAs globally, drawing on datasets from the World Database on Protected Areas1, US MPA Center2, and other country- and regional-level data authorities, as well as research conducted by the Marine Conservation Institute.
In addition to MPA boundaries and site management information, this dataset contains information on conservation measures with a particular focus on those restricting the exploitation of marine life.
Features on this site are designed to allow users to understand (1) where current protection exists and at what level, and (2), where important areas for future protection are and any processes underway to establish MPAs. This provides vital information to countries and their citizens interested in ocean conservation, management and stewardship.
The dataset is constantly being updated and we welcome visitors to the site to provide feedback and update content by creating a member account on MPAtlas today.