In the Philippines, MPAs can be categorized into two governance levels: nationally established MPAs and locally established MPAs. 1,620 locally managed MPAs have been established as of 2011 (National CTI Coordinating Committee 2013). However, many MPAs in the Philippines are small and not effectively managed (Arceo et al. 2008). There is no national agency assigned to track or monitor the progress of all these MPAs. Different organizations have attempted to establish the status of Philippine MPAs and MPA effectiveness (Alcala et al. 2008, Arceo et al. 2008, Maypa et al. 2012).