The Northwest Passage is a route through the Arctic Ocean from the northern coast of North America through the Canadian Archipelago that connects the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The area was frozen over by Arctic pack ice until 2009. The reduction in pack ice due to climate change has made the route more desirable are a marine shipping waterway. In addition to shipping concerns, the reduction in pack ice has permitted some species to migrate across the Arctic Ocean. Whale species like the grey and bowhead whales that are typically Pacific Ocean dwellers have both been seen in the Atlantic after the passage was opened. One grey whale was even seen as far east as the Mediterranean. With the reduction in pack ice over the past few years, the Northwest Passage has become the focus of many conservation campaigns, including the Pew Oceans North Program, and it was declared a Hope Spot by Mission Blue in 2013.