Even with multiple governments, international coalitions and nonprofit organizations working to establish MPAs, progress has been too slow to make a meaningful difference for ocean life. Only 2.18% of oceans are protected in MPAs (MPAtlas, Dec 2015), far less than the 15.4% of land under protection (includes inland waters - WDPA, 2014). More importantly, less than half of the area in MPAs is designated as “no-take” reserves, which provides the strongest level of protection. Many of the most important and vulnerable ecosystems are not yet protected and others are vastly underrepresented.
Marine Conservation Institute realized that the world needed a tool to provide real-time information on current and proposed MPAs and their effectiveness in protecting marine life. Thanks to the vision and generous support of the Waitt Foundation, we began working in 2011 to compile the information needed to create a robust database and interactive map that are integral components of MPAtlas. A prototype website was launched in February 2012 and MPAtlas.org officially released in June of 2012. The MPAtlas is continuously evolving and updating.
Please cite MPAtlas as:
Online: Marine Conservation Institute (year), MPAtlas [On-line]. Seattle, WA. Available at: www.mpatlas.org [Accessed (please insert date of download dd/mm/yyyy)].
Database: Marine Conservation Institute (year), MPAtlas. Seattle, WA. www.mpatlas.org [Accessed (please insert date of download dd/mm/yyyy)].
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It is tricky to provide a single clear answer to this question for a number of reasons. It’s trickier still to say which of them are effective at conservation because any number of planning, management and enforcement obstacles can negate potential protection “in the water” where it counts most.
For better or worse, the conservation community and resource management authorities frequently measure their progress by metrics of the number and geographic coverage of marine protected areas (MPAs).
While we agree that not all MPAs (and indeed not all campaigns) are created equal, at this time we are not yet able to incorporate the effectiveness of a protected area into the map. It is something we hope to do in the future. If we have specific information about the effectiveness of an MPA, it will be included in the site description. To learn more about evaluating MPA effectiveness, please visit www.globaloceanrefuge.org.
Initiative – Collection of campaigns unified under a central theme. Usually supported by a common NGO, agency or collection of groups.
Campaign – Formally declared effort to increase marine protection in a certain geographic area or ecosystem, no declared boundaries.
Proposed – Area of proposed protection with boundaries that have been proposed publically
Designated – Chosen but currently without management plan, regulations, or enforcement
Implemented – Formally created with management plan, regulations and enforcement
Defunct – No longer enforced or recognized
The process of creating an MPA starts with a campaign, run by an individual, an organization, a government, or other interested body. At this point in the process, no specific boundaries have yet been proposed for the MPA. Once boundaries have been officially and publically proposed, a campaign has created a proposed (candidate) MPA site.
First – thank you! Users like you who provided updated and corrected information on MPA sites, campaigns, and initiatives are invaluable to our work. Clicking on the “Sign In” link at the upper right corner will allow you to sign in or create an account. There are tiered memberships and if you email us and request editing priviledges we will work to provide you the appropriate level of access.
We are working on additional functionality including the ability to query the MPAtlas database for specific information.
We welcome verifiable information on campaigns from around the world. Please contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org with your campaign information.
Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument (2014), 1,271,500 km2 (127,150,000 hectares)
Echo Bay Marine Provincial Park, BC, Canada – 0.004 km2 (0.4 hectare)